Above: Gaute Ivarson's hohlpfennig
are bracteates (coins struck on one side only)
that were frequently minted in northern Germany in the late Middle Ages.
They represent a further development of the bracteates, with a distinct,
raised rim around a sunken centre area.
In Norway, hohlpfennigs were minted by the archbishops
Gaute Ivarsson (1474-1510) and Erik Valkendorf (1510-1522). German hohlpfennigs,
bracteates of teh bull-head
type circulated in Norway in the 1300s and 1400s.